Class 11 Economics Chapter 1 Introduction

soviet union
indian economy

Like science economics is also systematized body acknowledge. The various facts relevant to economics are systematically collected classified and analysed. Economic phenomena are capable of being measured in terms of money. So, the economic problem is mainly the problem of choice making or decision making. These problems are very common to every economic system and are known as “central problems of an economy”. Therefore, we can say there would have been no problem if the scarce resources would have had single use.

These are just a few examples, many other countries have capitalist economies with different variations and levels of government intervention. While these systems may have some similarities, there are also crucial distinctions between them. In this blog post, we’ll dive deep into the distinctions between communism and capitalism, examining their economic systems, political structures, and the impact they have on society. Are you intrigued by the fundamental difference between capitalism and communism? These two economic and political systems have been the centre of heated debate and discussions for centuries, and it’s no surprise why. They decide what to produce, while the role of a government is limited to maintaining law and order in the nation.

production possibilities

In other words, every society has to determine how to allocate its scarce resources to different goods and services. An allocation of the scarce resource of the economy gives rise to a particular combination of different goods and services. Given the total amount of resources, it is possible to allocate the resources in many different ways and, thereby achieving different mixes of all possible goods and services. On one hand, we have capitalism – an economic system where private individuals and businesses own the means of production and operate for profit. On the other hand, there’s communism – an economic system where the means of production are owned and controlled by the community as a whole.

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Today, India is the third largest economy in Asia with about $1.4 Trillion GDP after China and Japan is the 11th Largest economy in the world. India is the fourth largest in the world as measured by purchasing power parity , with a gross domestic product of about $4 trillion- USA, China, Japan, India. The National Development Council has a special role in our federal polity. It is the apex body for decision -making and deliberations oh development matters.

The economy is driven by private enterprise and competition, with individuals and businesses making decisions based on their self-interest. Because decision-making is centralised in a command economy, the government controls all supply and determines all demand. Because prices in the economy cannot arise naturally as they do in a market economy, they must be set by government officials. Indicative plan is one where there is a mixed economy with State and market playing significant roles to achieve targets for growth that they together set. It is operated under a planned economy but not command economy. In a planned economy all the economic decisions regarding what, how and for whom to produce are solved by the state through planning.

Frequently Asked Questions

Growth measures quantitative increase m goods and services. It deals with determination of general price level and output in the economy. 3 Its central problems are price determination and allocation of resources. Inefficient resource usage, which does not lower the economy’s potential for production, is what leads to high rates of unemployment. The economy will function within the PPC as a result of underutilization of resources.

Socialism and communism need a command economy to create a central plan that guides economic decisions. In a planned economy, the decision-making is centralized so the government controls all of the supply and sets all of the demand. As initially, the production in the economy is below its potential due to unemployment, this suggests that the economy is operating at a point below the Production Possibility curve .

Understand the concepts behind every chapter and score well in the board exams. Normative economic analysis is about what should be the ideal position in respect of a particular thin. The possibilities 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th also show that how the increase in production of TV sets will affect the production of computers. The above table shows that if we produce 2000 computers then the production of TV sets will be zero. In the same manner if 5000 TV sets are produced the production of computers will be zero. Improve bus services/public transport in smaller cities, towns and districts.

Introduction to Microeconomics Class 11 Chapter 1 Notes- Branches Of Economics

The ultimate goal of communism is to achieve a classless, stateless society in which there is no exploitation of one person by another. Both systems have their advantages and disadvantages and the implementation of these systems in practice has varied greatly in different countries. In a capitalist system, the government’s role is typically limited to protecting property rights and enforcing contracts, and prices are determined by supply and demand in the market. This means that businesses are free to produce and sell goods and services as they see fit, and consumers are free to buy them. Capitalism is based on the idea that individuals acting in their self-interest will ultimately benefit the entire society.


As the government starts employment generation schemes, the unemployed resources get utilized. In a situation of full employment the economy would move to a point on the PPC. Hence, economic value is reflected in terms of increased output and income. Unlimited wants of man and limited resources have created economics problems. Different economic problems of the society and there solution are the subject matter of economics. This is what we call production possibilities of an economy which arises due to scarcity of resources having multiple uses.

What Is Capitalist Economy?

The problem for whom to produce refers to selection of the category of people who will ultimately consume the goods. Since are scarce in every economy, no society can satisfy all the wants of its people. The economic problem of ‘For whom to Produce’ basically focuses on the distribution mix of the final goods and services produced. The distribution of the final goods and services is equivalent to the distribution of National Income among the factors of production such as land, labour, capital and entrepreneur.

  • In a planned economy all the economic decisions regarding what, how and for whom to produce are solved by the state through planning.
  • It studies how individuals, businesses, governments and Nations make choices regarding allocation of resources to satisfy their needs and wants.
  • The growth rate of 5.81% achieved in this Plan was more than the targeted one, the plan saw the beginnings of liberalization of Indian economy.

All the distinguish between a centrally planned economy and a market economy problems are solved through price mechanism i., demand and supply. 4 All the economic problems are solved as per direction of the planning commission. SNo Planned Economy Market Economy 1 All the materials means of production are owned by government. The economy determines how resources are allocated within a society, the cost of goods and services, and even what might be exchanged or bartered for those goods and services. The area of economics known as microeconomics examines how people, households, and businesses behave while making decisions about the economy.

Distinguish between a centrally planned economy and a market economy. The equilibrium of the prices and quantities of products and services in the individual market is the basic goal of microeconomics. We all desire access to better housing, education, entertainment, clothing, and food. But there are not enough resources to satisfy all of our needs. Even the most developed economies are unable to meet everyone’s demands.

It was cut short by the Janata Party that came to power in 1977. During the 1940’s, the Indian Federation of Labour published its People’s Plan by MN Roy that stressed on employment and wage goods. SN Agarwala, follower of Mahatma Gandhi published Gandhian Plan that emphasized on decentralization; agricultural development; employment; cottage industries etc. A shortage of resources in comparison to the demand for them is referred to as scarcity. Community living issues are explained by economics in terms of underlying resource costs and consumer advantages.

However, the strategy is criticized for the imbalances between the growth of the heavy industry sector and other spheres like agriculture and consumer goods etc that resulted. It is further criticized as it relied on ‘trickledown effect- benefits of growth will flow to all sections in course of time. This approach to eradication of poverty is slow and incremental. It is believed that frontal attack on poverty is required. A vibrant small-scale sector driving consumer goods production for dispersed and equitable growth and producing entrepreneurs. In the last about 60 years since India became a Republic, the National Income has increased many times.

Centrally planned economy best example is China .3.Market economy best example is United States of America. On the other hand, there is the only public sector in the command economy that produces the goods and decides its prices. The motive behind production in a planned economy is not to gain maximum profit but to distribute the resources equally. Prices are made affordable by the government so that everyone can afford to buy. There will be a significantly lesser gap between the wealthy and the poor as everybody is treated equally. Still, in reality, there are many disadvantages with the planned economy concept, which is why very few countries have planned economy today.

Thus, the allocation of scarce resources and the distribution of the final goods and services are the central problems of any economy. State how economic activities are organised in a mixed economy. In reality all economics are ___ economics where some important decisions are taken by the government and the economic activities are by and large conducted through the market.